Advanced İngilizce Okuma Parçaları – Level 5 ingilizce Reading – YDS, YKS, YÖKDİL paragraf soruları çöz

2018 Çıkmış Sorular Çöz (Part 7) - Yökdil Okuma Parçaları - Yökdil Paragraf Soruları

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Yanıtlarınız aşağıdaki gibidir.
Soru 1

‘Heritability’ is a measure of the relative importance of genes in determining variation in qualitative traits among individuals. However, the calculated heritability value is unique to the population in which it was measured and to the environment of that population. The specificity of heritability means that we should be very cautious when using heritability to measure the general importance of genes to the development of a trait. A famous misapplication of heritability comes from the book The Bell Curve, by Charles Herrnstein and Richard Murray, published in 1994. In this book, the authors report that IQ scores differ among subpopulations in the United States. Among white Americans, IQ averages are around 100 while among African-American populations, IQ averages are nearly 15 points lower. Using a conservative estimate of the heritability of intelligence, they argued that the IQ differences between whites and blacks are primarily due to a genetic difference in intelligence between these groups. However, on closer look, we can see that Herrnstein and Murray’s conclusion is flawed. These differences could be entirely due to environment. Given the history and current social and economic status of African-Americans in the United States, it is certainly possible that their environment is less enriched than the average environment experienced by a white individual.

According to the text, Herrnstein and Murray’s research -------.

A
deals with environmental problems
B
is the best work on IQ up to date
C
is flawless in terms of methods applied
D
is questionable due to a mistake in application of heritability
E
was published in the first half of the twentieth century
Soru 2

‘Heritability’ is a measure of the relative importance of genes in determining variation in qualitative traits among individuals. However, the calculated heritability value is unique to the population in which it was measured and to the environment of that population. The specificity of heritability means that we should be very cautious when using heritability to measure the general importance of genes to the development of a trait. A famous misapplication of heritability comes from the book The Bell Curve, by Charles Herrnstein and Richard Murray, published in 1994. In this book, the authors report that IQ scores differ among subpopulations in the United States. Among white Americans, IQ averages are around 100 while among African-American populations, IQ averages are nearly 15 points lower. Using a conservative estimate of the heritability of intelligence, they argued that the IQ differences between whites and blacks are primarily due to a genetic difference in intelligence between these groups. However, on closer look, we can see that Herrnstein and Murray’s conclusion is flawed. These differences could be entirely due to environment. Given the history and current social and economic status of African-Americans in the United States, it is certainly possible that their environment is less enriched than the average environment experienced by a white individual.

It can be clearly understood from the text that -------.

A
the heritability value of IQ is constant for all populations and cultures
B
there is no simple causal relationship between IQ and race
C
Herrnstein and Murray have rejected using IQ scores in their research
D
white Americans scored lower than African-Americans in the IQ test
E
environment is the only variable affecting the intelligence leve
Soru 3
 

‘Heritability’ is a measure of the relative importance of genes in determining variation in qualitative traits among individuals. However, the calculated heritability value is unique to the population in which it was measured and to the environment of that population. The specificity of heritability means that we should be very cautious when using heritability to measure the general importance of genes to the development of a trait. A famous misapplication of heritability comes from the book The Bell Curve, by Charles Herrnstein and Richard Murray, published in 1994. In this book, the authors report that IQ scores differ among subpopulations in the United States. Among white Americans, IQ averages are around 100 while among African-American populations, IQ averages are nearly 15 points lower. Using a conservative estimate of the heritability of intelligence, they argued that the IQ differences between whites and blacks are primarily due to a genetic difference in intelligence between these groups. However, on closer look, we can see that Herrnstein and Murray’s conclusion is flawed. These differences could be entirely due to environment. Given the history and current social and economic status of African-Americans in the United States, it is certainly possible that their environment is less enriched than the average environment experienced by a white individual.

The text is mainly about -------.

A
a comparative study of IQ scores between two groups in Africa
B
the high living standards of African-Americans
C
a well-known misapplication of heritability in IQ testing
D
the different editions of a book on IQ scores titled The Bell Curve
E
IQ levels of African-Americans living in the United States
Soru 4

In addition to temperature, other factors such as the availability of water, prevalence of high winds, and the duration and intensity of sunlight also limit the geographical areas in which various crops can be grown. However, as far as getting the best crop is concerned, even when fruit trees have bloomed satisfactorily, temperature can be a determinant of whether a good crop will be harvested. Most deciduous fruits need pollination, which is normally done by honeybees. If the temperature is not right, the bees just quit flying, and that can mean a very poor crop indeed. Even if the bees fly and pollen is spread, the pollen must germinate and the pollen tube grow down to the ovule, a process that can be severely restricted by unseasonably low temperatures. And even when pollination has been successful, the growth of individual grape berries (botanically, grapes are berries) can be restricted by both too high and too low temperatures.

It is clear from the text that -------.

A
inadequate sunlight can be disregarded when trees have bloomed satisfactorily
B
the development of deciduous fruits is induced by pollination without bees
C
the success of the pollination process depends solely on the quality of the plant
D
crops may not fully develop unless temperatures are suitable
E
new drug tests must be conducted on certain plants
Soru 5

In addition to temperature, other factors such as the availability of water, prevalence of high winds, and the duration and intensity of sunlight also limit the geographical areas in which various crops can be grown. However, as far as getting the best crop is concerned, even when fruit trees have bloomed satisfactorily, temperature can be a determinant of whether a good crop will be harvested. Most deciduous fruits need pollination, which is normally done by honeybees. If the temperature is not right, the bees just quit flying, and that can mean a very poor crop indeed. Even if the bees fly and pollen is spread, the pollen must germinate and the pollen tube grow down to the ovule, a process that can be severely restricted by unseasonably low temperatures. And even when pollination has been successful, the growth of individual grape berries (botanically, grapes are berries) can be restricted by both too high and too low temperatures.

Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text as a factor that affects crop growth?

A
Existence of sufficient water
B
Fluctuations in temperature
C
Pollination agents like honeybees
D
Successful pollen germination
E
The taste of fruits
Soru 6

In addition to temperature, other factors such as the availability of water, prevalence of high winds, and the duration and intensity of sunlight also limit the geographical areas in which various crops can be grown. However, as far as getting the best crop is concerned, even when fruit trees have bloomed satisfactorily, temperature can be a determinant of whether a good crop will be harvested. Most deciduous fruits need pollination, which is normally done by honeybees. If the temperature is not right, the bees just quit flying, and that can mean a very poor crop indeed. Even if the bees fly and pollen is spread, the pollen must germinate and the pollen tube grow down to the ovule, a process that can be severely restricted by unseasonably low temperatures. And even when pollination has been successful, the growth of individual grape berries (botanically, grapes are berries) can be restricted by both too high and too low temperatures.

The text is mainly about -------.

A
the significant role of temperature in growing good crops
B
factors behind the crop variety in some regions
C
the role of temperature on the post-harvest process
D
the difficulty in detecting honey bees
E
adaptation of pollination in other fields of study
Soru 7

Fusion energy almost sounds too good to be true because of zero greenhouse gas emissions, no long-lived radioactive waste, and nearly unlimited fuel supply. Yet, fusion power designs are not cheap enough to outperform systems that use fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. However, University of Washington engineers hope to change that. They have designed a concept for a fusion reactor that, when scaled up to the size of a large electrical power plant, would rival costs for a new coal-fired plant with similar electrical output. The design builds on existing technology and creates a magnetic field within a closed space to hold plasma in place long enough for fusion to occur, allowing the hot plasma to react and burn. The reactor itself would be largely self-sustaining, meaning it would continuously heat the plasma to maintain thermonuclear conditions. Heat generated from the reactor would heat up a coolant that is used to spin a turbine and generate electricity, similar to how a typical power plant works

It is clear from the text that-------

 
A
a fusion reactor can produce much more power than present plants
B
engineers have succeeded in making current energy systems more environmentally friendly
C
for the time being, the cost of fusion energy design is too high to be used widely
D
a cheaper way to produce energy from fossil fuels is under way
E
the fusion power plant design is based entirely on new technology
Soru 8

Fusion energy almost sounds too good to be true because of zero greenhouse gas emissions, no long-lived radioactive waste, and nearly unlimited fuel supply. Yet, fusion power designs are not cheap enough to outperform systems that use fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. However, University of Washington engineers hope to change that. They have designed a concept for a fusion reactor that, when scaled up to the size of a large electrical power plant, would rival costs for a new coal-fired plant with similar electrical output. The design builds on existing technology and creates a magnetic field within a closed space to hold plasma in place long enough for fusion to occur, allowing the hot plasma to react and burn. The reactor itself would be largely self-sustaining, meaning it would continuously heat the plasma to maintain thermonuclear conditions. Heat generated from the reactor would heat up a coolant that is used to spin a turbine and generate electricity, similar to how a typical power plant works

It is clear from the text that -------.

 
A
fusion reactors and fossil-fuelled power plants can both be turned into self-sustaining energy sources
B
electricity production in a fusion reactor is more time-consuming than other power plants
C
the number of coal-fired power plants is declining due to fusion reactors in use
D
when in use, the fusion power plant will not release any harmful gases
E
coal-fired plants will produce less energy if fusion plants are operational
Soru 9

Fusion energy almost sounds too good to be true because of zero greenhouse gas emissions, no long-lived radioactive waste, and nearly unlimited fuel supply. Yet, fusion power designs are not cheap enough to outperform systems that use fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. However, University of Washington engineers hope to change that. They have designed a concept for a fusion reactor that, when scaled up to the size of a large electrical power plant, would rival costs for a new coal-fired plant with similar electrical output. The design builds on existing technology and creates a magnetic field within a closed space to hold plasma in place long enough for fusion to occur, allowing the hot plasma to react and burn. The reactor itself would be largely self-sustaining, meaning it would continuously heat the plasma to maintain thermonuclear conditions. Heat generated from the reactor would heat up a coolant that is used to spin a turbine and generate electricity, similar to how a typical power plant works

The text mainly deals with -------.

 
A
a prospective fusion reactor design with great potential
B
various cost-efficient means of producing energy
C
the cost of fusion power plants and coal-fired plants
D
research on future plants run by fossil fuels
E
existing fusion power plants and their benefits
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