YÖKDİL Fen Bilimleri Testleri – Okuma Parçası 2

YÖKDİL Fen Bilimleri Testleri - Okuma Parçası 2

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Soru 1

As well as being the largest mountain range on the planet, the Himalayas is also one of the youngest. Just seventy million years ago, a very short time in geological terms, the Himalayas did not exist. As the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collided with the Eurasian plate at the rate of about 15 centimetres a year, the ocean floor in between began to rise up to form the mountain range. This means that much of the rock out of which these towering peaks are made was formed at the bottom of an ocean, only to be lifted up thousands of metres into the air. The evidence for this extraordinary journey is not difficult to find. If you look closely at any piece of Himalayan limestone, you will see it has a chalky, granular structure. What you are looking at are the remains of sea creatures. Given a relatively short timescale and a bit of pressure, these biological remains are quickly converted into solid rock. Limestone can also be formed by the direct precipitation of calcium carbonate from water, although the biological sedimentary form is more abundant. We know that the Himalayan limestone is predominantly biological because we have found fossils at the top of Mount Everest. There is perhaps no better example of the endless recycling of Earth’s resources that has been going on since its formation almost five billion years ago.

According to the passage, the Himalayas ----.

A
is rapidly shifting its position at the rate of approximately 15 centimetres annually
B
is unique in the time period in which it was formed
C
is the source of most geological activity on the planet
D
was formed comparatively recently by geological standards
E
came into being as a result of a violent volcanic eruption seventy million years ago
Soru 2

As well as being the largest mountain range on the planet, the Himalayas is also one of the youngest. Just seventy million years ago, a very short time in geological terms, the Himalayas did not exist. As the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collided with the Eurasian plate at the rate of about 15 centimetres a year, the ocean floor in between began to rise up to form the mountain range. This means that much of the rock out of which these towering peaks are made was formed at the bottom of an ocean, only to be lifted up thousands of metres into the air. The evidence for this extraordinary journey is not difficult to find. If you look closely at any piece of Himalayan limestone, you will see it has a chalky, granular structure. What you are looking at are the remains of sea creatures. Given a relatively short timescale and a bit of pressure, these biological remains are quickly converted into solid rock. Limestone can also be formed by the direct precipitation of calcium carbonate from water, although the biological sedimentary form is more abundant. We know that the Himalayan limestone is predominantly biological because we have found fossils at the top of Mount Everest. There is perhaps no better example of the endless recycling of Earth’s resources that has been going on since its formation almost five billion years ago.

According to the passage, the origin of the Himalayas ----

A
can be traced by examining the behaviour of its animal species
B
can now be studied by examining the rocks found in nearby seas
C
is not easy to be determined due to the fact that they fell into the ocean
D
is evident in the fossils found in its structure
E
is difficult to determine due to changes in the composition of its rocks
Soru 3

As well as being the largest mountain range on the planet, the Himalayas is also one of the youngest. Just seventy million years ago, a very short time in geological terms, the Himalayas did not exist. As the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collided with the Eurasian plate at the rate of about 15 centimetres a year, the ocean floor in between began to rise up to form the mountain range. This means that much of the rock out of which these towering peaks are made was formed at the bottom of an ocean, only to be lifted up thousands of metres into the air. The evidence for this extraordinary journey is not difficult to find. If you look closely at any piece of Himalayan limestone, you will see it has a chalky, granular structure. What you are looking at are the remains of sea creatures. Given a relatively short timescale and a bit of pressure, these biological remains are quickly converted into solid rock. Limestone can also be formed by the direct precipitation of calcium carbonate from water, although the biological sedimentary form is more abundant. We know that the Himalayan limestone is predominantly biological because we have found fossils at the top of Mount Everest. There is perhaps no better example of the endless recycling of Earth’s resources that has been going on since its formation almost five billion years ago.

According to the passage,  limestone ----.

A
will transform back into a softer form of rock in time
B
is the material of which most mountain ranges are composed
C
can be formed in different ways involving both organic and non-organic substances
D
is found almost always on sea floors with a limited variety of sea life
E
provides an ideal environment in which fossils can be preserved
Soru 4

As well as being the largest mountain range on the planet, the Himalayas is also one of the youngest. Just seventy million years ago, a very short time in geological terms, the Himalayas did not exist. As the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collided with the Eurasian plate at the rate of about 15 centimetres a year, the ocean floor in between began to rise up to form the mountain range. This means that much of the rock out of which these towering peaks are made was formed at the bottom of an ocean, only to be lifted up thousands of metres into the air. The evidence for this extraordinary journey is not difficult to find. If you look closely at any piece of Himalayan limestone, you will see it has a chalky, granular structure. What you are looking at are the remains of sea creatures. Given a relatively short timescale and a bit of pressure, these biological remains are quickly converted into solid rock. Limestone can also be formed by the direct precipitation of calcium carbonate from water, although the biological sedimentary form is more abundant. We know that the Himalayan limestone is predominantly biological because we have found fossils at the top of Mount Everest. There is perhaps no better example of the endless recycling of Earth’s resources that has been going on since its formation almost five billion years ago.

It is understood from the passage that ----.

A
further study of the Himalayan fossils will help scientists predict future tectonic plate movement
B
the emergence of the Himalayas caused the extinction of many forms of ocean life
C
the Himalayas provide the most complete fossil record to be found on Earth
D
most of the Earth’s mineral resources are biological in origin
E
the Earth’s resources are constantly being reformed and reused
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