Yökdil Sağlık Bilimleri 2018 Çıkmış Sorular Çöz (Part 6) – Yökdil Çıkmış paragraf soruları çöz

Yökdil Sağlık Bilimleri 2018 Çıkmış Sorular Çöz (Part 6)

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Yanıtlarınız aşağıdaki gibidir.
Soru 1

Quality assessment in health care is bedevilled with measurement problems. The measurement of output, or more strictly the agent’s effort in producing output, is particularly difficult. Quality can be measured in terms of the quality of inputs, processes, or outcomes. Input quality measurement, for example, would involve assessing the capabilities and training of the labour force, the standard of the capital facilities and equipment, and the input mix. Such an approach is often taken by health care regulators seeking to maintain a register of qualified providers. Process quality measurement, however, would involve assessing whether agents are performing actions that are most likely to generate good quality outputs. In health care, this might involve assessing whether providers are following best-practice guidelines and offering patients effective treatment regimes. Finally, quality output measurement would focus on the benefits that have been achieved for patients, regardless of how they have been achieved. Such benefits should include gains in survival and quality of life and increasingly capture patients’ experience of using health care services.

We understand from the text that -------.

A
assessing input quality is much more challenging than assessing process quality
B
each method of quality measurement focuses on different aspects of health care
C
measuring quality has led to significant legal problems
D
the only focus of quality measurement is general labour force
E
quality control assessment in health care has just been initiated
Soru 2

Quality assessment in health care is bedevilled with measurement problems. The measurement of output, or more strictly the agent’s effort in producing output, is particularly difficult. Quality can be measured in terms of the quality of inputs, processes, or outcomes. Input quality measurement, for example, would involve assessing the capabilities and training of the labour force, the standard of the capital facilities and equipment, and the input mix. Such an approach is often taken by health care regulators seeking to maintain a register of qualified providers. Process quality measurement, however, would involve assessing whether agents are performing actions that are most likely to generate good quality outputs. In health care, this might involve assessing whether providers are following best-practice guidelines and offering patients effective treatment regimes. Finally, quality output measurement would focus on the benefits that have been achieved for patients, regardless of how they have been achieved. Such benefits should include gains in survival and quality of life and increasingly capture patients’ experience of using health care services.

The text is mainly about -------.

A
the essential role of assessment in producing desirable output
B
the agent’s role in identifying problems related to measurement
C
the difference between the quality and the produced output
D
problems that lead to the discontinuance of quality assessment
E
different methods used in assessing quality in the health care sector
Soru 3

The nose is especially vulnerable to impact injuries, and the nasal bones are the most commonly fractured on the face. Injury to the cartilage often accompanies a nasal fracture; these injuries are typically painful and result in significant swelling and bruising. A fracture can displace the bones and the cartilage, altering the flow of air through the nose, and can result in bleeding within the nasal passages. As an immediate action, applying ice to the area as soon as possible helps contain the swelling. To confirm a nasal fracture completely, the doctor may order X-rays of the face. The doctor often can repair a simple nasal fracture by external manipulation done with local anaesthesia. On the other hand, an injury that is more extensive than a simple nasal fracture typically requires surgery to return the bones to their normal positions. The bones become set in about a week; the fracture heals fully in four to six weeks. Nevertheless, most nasal fractures heal effectively and have no long-term consequences.

We understand from the text that -------.

A
nasal fractures are always treated as serious injuries by doctors
B
an X-ray must be obtained by doctors whether it is a simple nasal fracture or not
C
ice should immediately be applied to the fracture following the surgery
D
when a nasal fracture occurs, the cartilage in the nose is usually injured as well
E
there is no information about the healing period of the nasal fracture and recovery process
Soru 4

The nose is especially vulnerable to impact injuries, and the nasal bones are the most commonly fractured on the face. Injury to the cartilage often accompanies a nasal fracture; these injuries are typically painful and result in significant swelling and bruising. A fracture can displace the bones and the cartilage, altering the flow of air through the nose, and can result in bleeding within the nasal passages. As an immediate action, applying ice to the area as soon as possible helps contain the swelling. To confirm a nasal fracture completely, the doctor may order X-rays of the face. The doctor often can repair a simple nasal fracture by external manipulation done with local anaesthesia. On the other hand, an injury that is more extensive than a simple nasal fracture typically requires surgery to return the bones to their normal positions. The bones become set in about a week; the fracture heals fully in four to six weeks. Nevertheless, most nasal fractures heal effectively and have no long-term consequences.

A nasal fracture -------.

A
is impossible to be repositioned by external intervention
B
rarely gives rise to bleeding and swelling beyond pain
C
continues to disturb the patient for the rest of his/her life
D
must be surgically positioned without anaesthesia
E
can disrupt the flow of air and cause bleeding
Soru 5

Every year in the U.S., doctor’s offices and hospitals order billions of laboratory tests to measure everything from cholesterol levels in the blood to the presence of a gene that is thought to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Physicians and patients typically assume that they can trust the results of these tests, and most of the time they can. But not all lab tests are equally reliable, and faulty ones can have serious consequences. Sometimes they fail to determine life threatening conditions. Other times they indicate a problem that does not exist, which can lead to unnecessary, perhaps even dangerous treatments. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now taking steps to restore confidence in the reliability of these tests. In 2017, the agency released proposed guidelines that will subject these tests, for the first time, to federal oversight. Several industry sources believe the final rulings may begin taking effect soon, whereas some lab directors say that the requirements could increase costs and affect medical practice.

It is clear from the text that laboratory tests -------.

A
used to cost more than they do now
B
have been disputed and monitored by the FDA for a long time
C
are largely conducted by the FDA in the U.S.
D
may sometimes fail to provide accurate results
E
are now controlled by federal officials in the U.S.
Soru 6

Every year in the U.S., doctor’s offices and hospitals order billions of laboratory tests to measure everything from cholesterol levels in the blood to the presence of a gene that is thought to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Physicians and patients typically assume that they can trust the results of these tests, and most of the time they can. But not all lab tests are equally reliable, and faulty ones can have serious consequences. Sometimes they fail to determine life threatening conditions. Other times they indicate a problem that does not exist, which can lead to unnecessary, perhaps even dangerous treatments. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now taking steps to restore confidence in the reliability of these tests. In 2017, the agency released proposed guidelines that will subject these tests, for the first time, to federal oversight. Several industry sources believe the final rulings may begin taking effect soon, whereas some lab directors say that the requirements could increase costs and affect medical practice.

We understand from the text that -------.

A
patients demand that medications should be regulated strictly
B
patients are willing to pay the cost of the test themselves
C
laboratory tests have been questioned by physicians since 2016
D
the guidelines that the FDA issued have already taken effect in hospitals
E
there are disagreements about the measures taken by the FDA
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